Gaule independent was divided into sixty small States in prey with the political dissensions, and often in war the ones against the others.
The Romans benefit from this disorder and this parcelling out; their higher legions disciplines some, and ordered by César, separately crush the Gallic bands (58 to 52 front. J.C.).
The Gallic ones, which is seen conquered, are linked, but too late: their impromptu armies are beaten, in spite of greatest courage, in Lutèce (Paris), and Alésia (Sainte-Reine Alise); their Vercingétorix chief is constrained to go.
In 51 all Gaule is pacified.