ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Costume of emperor.
Charlemagne and its successors, who were at the same time kings of the Franks and emperors of Occident, adopted several Roman emblems, the sphere, symbol of the empire of the world, the sceptre and the crown, badges of the sovereign power.
The crown of Charlemagne was closed by the top and was surmounted by a cross.
Louis Débonnaire associated with the Empire.
Charlemagne, feeling its nearest death, brings together the bishops and the large ones in Aachen, and asked to them whether they would recognize his Louis son as emperor: they promised all to obey the son as they had obeyed the father, saying that it was the will of God.
Come Sunday, the emperor adorned his imperial clothes and went to the church; after having lengthily requested with his son, it spoke to give him its last councils; it exhorted it to fear God, to love the priests, the people and the poor, then it ordered to him to take on the furnace bridge a crown similar to his and to fix it on its face (fine of 813).
Bernard asks for his grace.
A nephew of Louis Débonnaire, Bernard, dissatisfied to have had in division only the kingdom of Italy, wanted at least to make himself independent, but Louis gathered a large army in the Châlons-on-Saone and prepared to pass the Alps.
Bernard, too weak to support the fight, beseeched his forgiveness; Louis made him tear off the eyes (818).
Humiliation of Louis Débonnaire.
Fallen to the hands from his rebellious sons, Louis Débonnaire was subjected to an odious humiliation.
One carried out it in the Saint Médard's Day church to Soissons; one forced it to start at knees and reading in front of all a long consent of his faults, true or imaginary; then his military badges were removed to him, and one covered it with a dress of penitent; after which one locked up it in a narrow prison for the remainder of his days (833).
Oath of Strasbourg.
Charles the Bald person and Louis the Germanic one, after having beaten Lothaire with Fontanet, renewed their alliance solemnly: they went to Strasbourg, and after having arranged the two armies opposite one the other, they swore an eternal friendship: Charles the Bald person, who addressed to the soldiers of Louis, expressed himself in German; Louis expressed in French to be included/understood soldiers of Charles the Bald person (842).
ORIGINS OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE
The French language comes from Latin, i.e.
the words of which served the Romans there are two thousand years became with time the words of which we are useful ourselves.
The change was not made a blow very, nor randomly: between the Latin word and the current word there is a long chain of intermediate words which come the ones from the others following of the given laws.
These intermediate words, which had each one a more or less long existence, we do not know them all, because times ago of which we did not keep any text.
The Oath of Strasbourg, so short that it is, has for us a great importance, because it is the only text of the ninth century which reached us:
Pro Deo amur - and pro Christian poplo - and nostro commun run salvament, - dist di ahead, - in as Deus to savir and polish to me dunat, - if salvara jeo cist meon fratre Karlo, - and in adjudha and cadhuna cosa - (if COM om per dreit its fradra salvar dist), - in O quid it semi altresi fazet, - and ab null Ludher plaid nunquam will prindrai - which, meon flight, - cist meon fradre Karlo in damno sit.
For the love of God - and the Christian people - and for our common safety, - as from this day, - as far as God gives me the knowledge and the capacity of it, - I will save my Charles brother, here present, - and I will be to him in assistance in each thing, - (as one must, according to justice, to save his brother) - in all that it would reciprocally do for me, - and I will not reach with Lothaire any agreement - which, by my will, - can carry damage to my Charles brother, here present.
The decline starts at once after the death of Charlemagne (814).
Louis Débonnaire (814-840) is impotent to continue the work of his father, i.e.
to maintain the unit in the Empire.
Its sons, which want to have each one a kingdom, revolt against him and reduce it to hardest humiliations.
With its death, the elder one of its sons, Lothaire, wants to be the only Master, but the two others, Charles the Bald person and Louis the Germanic one, are linked against him, beat it in Fontanet, close to Auxerre (841), and sink it to conclude the treaty from Verdun, which shares the Empire in three shares about equal, France, Germany and Italy with a long territory between France and Germany (843).
These wars, where many men perish, support the invasions of the Norman pirates.
Louis Débonnaire associated with…
Humiliation of Louis Débonnaire.