ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Died of Richard Lion Heart.
The Viscount of Limoges having found a large treasure in the castle of Chalus, his suzerain Richard Lion Heart claimed to him, and for tearing off to him, it came itself to besiege Chalus; but, at the time when it put foot at ground, it was reached with the shoulder of a feature launched by a crossbow, and it died at the end of a few days, after having asked its soldiers to save his murderer (1199).
Assassination of Arthur of Brittany.
Henri II had had four sons: Henri, Richard, Geoffroy and Jean without Ground.
When Richard had died, two applicants were in presence, Jean without Ground, and Arthur of Brittany, son of Geoffroy.
Arthur had the right for him, and it was supported by Philippe Auguste, but it fell between the hands from his uncle Jean, who took it along in a boat, stabbed it and threw his body in the Seine (1203).
Catch of the Strong castle.
The Gaillard castle, which barred the valley of the Seine, close to Andelys, was regarded as impregnable.
But French fills a ditch, and sapping the base of a tower safe from their shields, they reverse it and spring with the attack of a second enclosure; several times pushed back, they there penetrate by a window of the vault, and finally force besieged to capitulate in the keep (October 1203).
Philippe then put the seat in front of Rouen.
The city, defended by a double rampart and three ditches, could not be removed from force; but it was reduced to the famine to capitulate in June 1204: it cut down its walls and shaved its citadel.
Normandy was reconquered.
Contest of Troubadours.
The knights, especially those of the South, were not any more of the men ignoramuses and coarse as at the tenth century: to like the great blows of sword, they did not taste less the beautiful ones towards; the chivalrous poets, called trouveres in North, troubadours in the South, celebrated especially the heroism and the piety of the warriors, the beauty and the virtue of the ladies of the manor, in lovesongs and songs, satires, French tale in verse and especially in poems epic called chansons de geste.
Powerful lords and kings such as Richard Lion Heart did not scorn to deliver themselves to poetry.
Often two troubadours contributed before an elegant assembly, and the injuries served referees to them.
With the death of Richard Lion Heart (1199), his Jean brother without Ground, and its Arthur nephew of Brittany dispute his succession; Jean assassinates Arthur, but Philippe Auguste, taking advantage of his rights of suzerain, quotes it to appear before his court of the Pars, made up of his large vassal, and on its refusal, it removes Normandy to him, Maine, Anjou, Touraine and Poitou (1204).
Jean without Ground preserves in France only Aquitaine.
Assassination of Arthur of…