ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
The Bastille had been started in 1370 and had been finished in 1383: it was composed of eight gigantic turns connected the ones to the others by thick walls of eight feet, with broad and deep ditches.
With the advent of Charles VII, the Bastille, the large fortress of Paris, was with the capacity of the English.
Charles VII proclaimed king.
While the king of England was proclaimed in Paris, some French knights proclaimed the dolphin with Méhun-on-Yèvre, in Berry, while shouting: Live king Charles, seventh of the name, by the grace of God, king de France!
The English fleet in the Mount-Saint-Michel.
The English had come, 15 000, to besiege the Mount-Saint-Michel by ground and sea, but all their attacks were pushed back, and their fleet was dispersed by a violent storm.
The grateful people allotted the disaster to the Michaelmas archangel, who was one of the owners of the kings de France (1423).
Fights of Rouvray or Day of Herrings.
Orléanais, which, at the end of four months of seat, started to miss food, solved to remove a large convoy of five hundred carriages which one dispatched of Paris to the English army.
Fifteen hundred determined men left the city under the command of Hire, of Dunois and of Xaintrailles, cleared a passage through besieging, then giving the hand to a small body of French cavalry which beat the surroundings of Orleans, they attacked the convoy close to the village of Rouvray; but the English and the Parisian militia which fought in the enemy rows cut off firmly behind the carriages.
The French were pushed back with great losses, and the detachment which had left Orleans the morning, had large pains to return there the evening, for decreased (February 12, 1429).
The Parisian ones of the English army called this combat the Day of Herrings, because the battle field was strewn with herrings fallen from the carriages, but Orléanais were laid out with laughing, by counting their deaths.
Jeanne d' Arc takes by storm the Bastille of the Small towers.
Jeanne d' Arc was a young country-woman of Domrémy, in Lorraine; as of its childhood, it had been pilot misfortunes of the war, it had seen the English plundering his village, and it felt selected by God to drive out them France: its patriotism and its piety made of it a heroin and holy: "I must go to the help of the king, says it; to make the war with the saint kingdom of France, it is to even make the war with God ", and it left its village, covered an armour and rode a horse, then it went to find the king with the castle of Chinon, admitted it without never having seen it, and managed to involve it him and all its court; then, with a small troop, it was thrown in Orleans through the enemy lines (April 29), had communicated to besieged soon its confidence as a God, and with the head of enthusiastic people, it took by storm the English bastilles the ones after the others; May 8, Orleans was delivered, France returned to the life, and the discouraged English understood that the time of their victories had passed.
With the death of Charles VI (1422), his son Charles VII is recognized only in the provinces of the center.
New king d' Angleterre Henri VI is proclaimed king de France in Paris and is recognized by the Burgundian ones; the English advance to the Loire and besiege Orleans; France seems lost.
But this crisis is a test; in prey with the war, at the armed robbery, the famine, the plague, the people put his confidence as a God; its faith and its patriotism grow with misfortune, and are incarnated in a twenty year old girl: Jeanne d' Arc undertakes to return to the king her kingdom, goes to him, tears off it with her indolence, involves the army and delivers Orleans (May 1429).
France returns to the life and rises against the national enemy with a dash hitherto unknown.
Charles VII proclaimed king.