ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Jeanne d' Arc made captive.
Compiegne, besieged by the duke of Burgundy, beseeched the help of Jeanne d' Arc, who had saved so many cities.
She ran at once through the enemy lines, revived defense, and made an exit the very same day her arrival; but it ran up the Burgundian masses; the discouraged French turned over towards the city; Jeanne, reduced to follow them, ensured their retirement at least and continued to fight with a handle of men, while the door of the city was closed again; when she wanted to return in her turn, it was too late: the drawbridge was raised; the Burgundian ones precipitated on it; overpowered under the number, Jeanne was reversed of horse, and fell alive to the capacity from the enemy (May 1430).
The duke of Burgundy, which was the ally of the English, sold his captive to them at the cost of ten thousand franks, and Charles VII did not do anything to repurchase it.
As soon as the English draw Jeanne d' Arc in their capacity, in the castle of Rouen, they were avenged cruelly for the evil that it had made them: they reflect to him chains with the hands, the feet and the neck, and locked up it in an iron cage, then they composed a court, which showed it disobedience to his parents, of imposture, heresy, sacrilege and sorcery.
Jeanne d' Arc in front of her judges.
The lawsuit lasted three months, of January 21 at May 24, 1431: the judges, who had order to condemn Jeanne, sought to embarrass it by thousand questions: did you make well, asked him, to leave without the permission your father and mother ? God ordered it to me, did it answer, and them they Which forgave me were the intentions of those which kissed you the hands and clothing ? They knew that I defended them of all my capacity against the English.
Why did you enter the church of Rheims with your standard ? It had been with the sorrow; it was well justice which it was with the honor.
God it does hate the English ? I do not know if God loves or hates the English, but I know well that the English will be put out of France, except those which will perish there "Jeanne had opposite it only judges sold to its enemies, coarse soldiers who insulted it, of the torturers ready to seize it to torment it: exhausted of tiredness, dazed by the promises and the threats, intimidated by the solemnity of the Court which a bishop unworthy of the name of priest chaired, the bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon, Jeanne did what the judges wished over all, it recognized guilty imposture.
Martyrdom of Jeanne d' Arc.
The judges, proud to have torn off in Jeanne the disavowal of her divine mission, were satisfied to condemn it to the perpetual prison, "the bread of pain and the water of anguish", so that it passed the remainder of her life to cry her sins; but the English, who wanted his death, accomodated this sentence by cries of fury, insulted the judges, stones launched to them and failed to throw them to the Seine.
The infamous court, trembling of terror, then solved to satisfy the English fully: while Jeanne slept connected in her prison, his clothing of woman was concealed to him, and one replaced them by a costume of man: "Messrs, says it to his geôliers, as soon as it realized trap that one tended to him, you know that it is defended to me to take again these clothes" They refused of him to give others of them and forced it to take them: at once the judges entered; it was noted that it had fallen down in its evil spells and that it deserved death; Pierre Cauchon turned with joy to the English who followed it, and says to them while laughing: "It is done" Jeanne knew the fate which awaited it, but suddenly finding the whole possession of itself: "I had abjured to save my life, says it, but now that I will die, I damnerais myself, if I said that God did not send to me; my voices came me from God, and I do not regret what I did "Two days after, May 30 in the morning, Pierre Cauchon, accompanied by two monks, him enjoindre had just prepared with the dead one: "Bishop, says it, I die by you, and I call you with God" Jeanne was vêtue of a long shirt of penitent; one put to him on the head a large mitre with these words: "Heretic, relapse, apostate, idolâtre", then one carried it in a cart in the place of the Old man-Market, where a large scaffold in masonry was drawn up, surmounted of enormous to rough-hew.
There, in the presence of an immense crowd that agitated the most various feelings, Jeanne was related to the scaffold, so that the English soldiers could it contemplate and repaître lengthily its tears.
After two long sermons, which faded it like an abominable witch, one read out sentence to him who condemned it "to be cut off from the body of the Church as well as a member rotted" At once the torturer seizes it, connected it with the post, and put fire at roughing-hew.
Jeanne, eyes fixed on the cross which in front of it its confessor held, addressed to God a supreme prayer to ask him for courage, forgave all his enemies and repeated several times that its voices had not misled it; already the flames surrounded it de.toutes.parts and seized their prey: Jeanne did not push a cry; the disappointed English still intended it to pronounce the name of Jesus, then smoke hid the anguish of their victim, and the torment was completed in an appalling silence.
The judges did not dare to look at roughing-hew it, and the English had ceased laughing; finally, the inhabitants of Rouen, from which much had heroically made owe them in 1419 with Alain Blanchard, cried of their impotence and venerated Jeanne d' Arc like a martyrdom of patriotism.
The judges made throw ashes in the Seine, so that the people could not collect them.
Jeanne d' Arc still beats the English with Patay (1429), seizes Troyes and of Châlons, involves Charles VII and the fact of crowning in Rheims, then boldly tries to deliver Paris.
But it is seriously wounded with the attack of the Saint-Honore door, and is forced with the retirement by the indolence of Charles VII.
Reduced to a small troop, it is taken in Compiegne by Burgundian (May 1430), is delivered to the English and the is burned sharp one like witch in Rouen (May 1431).