Several important institutions mark the reign of Charles VII: perpetual size, regular tax; the standing army, made up of fifteen companies of gendarmerie, franks-archers and a well organized artillery; finally the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, which regulates the reports/ratios of the pope and the king.
Jacques Heart, treasurer of the king, give a great impulse to the trade.
The literature develops.
The year 1453, which marks the end of the One Hundred Years old war, is the date of another great event: the Byzantine Empire, attacked by the Turks since the fourteenth century, is successively stripped all its provinces of Asia and Europe, and ends up succumbing; Constantinople, besieged by Mohamet II, falls to the capacity from the Turks (1453).
The people of Occident do not make any effort to tear off the East with the Inaccurate ones: the time of the crusades passed, modern times start.