The reign of Louis XI can be divided into three periods: 1° of 1461 to 1468, it makes great imprudences, and it is overcome; - 2° of 1468 to 1475, it is held prudently on the defensive; - 3° of 1475 to 1483, it takes again the offensive, benefits skilfully from the circumstances, and gives to France eight provinces.
With the advent of Louis XI, the royalty already made very great progress: thanks to Charles VII, it has between the hands of the weapons frightening, the perpetual size, the standing army, the artillery, but it is still very far away from the absolute capacity; feudality is weakened, but it still remains to lower some large lords, and to make return in the royal field the provinces which were detached from it imprudently like prerogatives, Brittany, Anjou, and especially the States of the duke of Burgundy, i.e.
Burgundy, the Frank, the Flanders, Artois and the cities of the Sum.
Impatient to be a true king, Louis XI dissatisfied imprudently by his despotism the nobility, clergy, middle-class men and people.
Attacked by the count de Charolais, Charles the Bold one, son of the duke of Burgundy, by his own brother Charles, and the lords who form the feudal league, known as public property.
Louis XI understands that it is not most extremely, and is solved, after the undecided battle of Montlhéry (1465), to make to its enemies great concessions by the treaties of Conflans and Saint-Maur (1465); he yields Normandy to his Charles brother.