ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Died of Gaston de Foix with Ravenne.
Gaston de Foix, young person general of twenty-three years, returned one moment the victory to France.
He had as much prudence than the old Generals, and he astonished more the brave men by his courage.
After having driven out Switzerland of the Milanese, removed Bologna with the Spaniards and Brescia with Venetian, it attacks in Ravenne the Spaniards and the army of the Pope.
Thanks to a terrible cannonade and with furious loads, the battle was gained and the enemy fled, when Gaston, seeing two Spanish companies which were withdrawn proudly with the small step, sprang on them au.galop with some men; soon surrounded and désarçonné, it refused to go, and, new Roland, it defended himself a long time with blows of sword, but to the fifteenth wound, it fell (April 1512).
Gaston de Foix was not replaced, and the fortune of France succumbed with him.
Prégent de Bidoux in Conquet.
Under Louis XII the French navy, up to that point of no importance, starts to compete of glory with the army, and the two names of Prégent and Primoguet deserve to be engraved in touts the memories.
Attacked by the English fleet (April 25, 1513), Prégent de Bidoux, which had only four small galères, was withdrawn in the handle of Conquet, not to be surrounded, and awaited the attack of the enemy in a narrow master key where the number became useless; the first ship which was presented was that of the admiral Howard; Prégent lets it approach, is thrown on him with the boarding, shapes with body with the admiral and extends it dead to its feet.
A second English ship, which advances with the help of the first, runs up against rocks and sinks.
The fleet moves away from the coasts of France, and Prégent, in its turn, will devastate the coasts of England.
Devotion of Herve de Primoguet.
A few months after, for Ushant, the Breton admiral Herve de Primoguet attacked with twenty ships an English fleet four times more: first shock it ran three English ships, but it is surrounded soon by higher forces, and its vessel the Beautifulone is sifted balls, is démâté, and tightened closely by the Regent, vessel of the English admiral.
Primoguet refuses to go, and in a sublime despair, it pushes the Beautifulone against the Regent, clings to it by hooks, and makes jump the two ships: the other vessels transfer a great gleam, and heard a formidable noise, then they saw only the floods which had just absorbed two thousand men; the English withdrew themselves terrified, and nineteen French vessels returned to Brest.
The pope Jules II, who wants to be the Master in Italy, form initially against Venice a great coalition, where it skilfully makes enter Louis XII; then, when the French destroyed the Venetian army with Agnadel (1509), it is turned against them with the Venetian ones, the Swiss ones, the Spaniards, the English and the Germans.
Gaston de Foix, in an admirable campaign, holds head with the coalition in Italy, but it is killed with its fourth victory, in Ravenne (1512); the French Army is beaten in Novare (1513) and is driven out of Italy; France is invaded and threatened on all sides, when the death of the pope Jules II brings back peace.