The two greater facts of the sixteenth century are the Rebirth and the Reform.
The Rebirth is the restoration of arts, the letters and sciences: supported by great inventions, mainly by the printing works, which multiplies the books, it occurs as of the fifteenth century in Italy, especially in Florence, thanks to the protection of Médicis.
In France it starts under Louis XII, reaches his apogee under François 1st, is prolonged under Henri II, then declines.
In arts France does not have as great painters as the Italians Raphaël, Michel-Angel and Léonard de Vinci, but it has the incomparable faience manufacturer Bernard Palissy, two large sculptors, Jean Goujon and German Rammer, of large architects, such as Pierre Lescot, who begins the Louvre, and Philibert Delorme which builds the first castle of Tileries.
In the letters the principal writers are Rabelais, Amyot, Calvin and Montaigne; the principal poets Marot, Ronsard and later Régnier and Malherbe.
Sciences make also great progress, the study of the right with Cujas, the surgery with Ambroise Paré.
The foundation of the College of France by François 1st contributes to the progress of the scientific spirit.