ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Rabelais, born close to Chinon, in 1483, the same year as Raphaël and than Luther, died in 1553, did not write that a book: Actions of Gargantua and his son Pantagruel, extraordinary novel, mixture of science and comic, morals and coarseness; but it is a work of genius, where in a pleasant and often monstrous form, a sharp satire of ignorance is hiding place, routine and abuses without a number which it had been dangerous to attack openly.
Ronsard, born in 1524 in Vendômois, died in 1585, was a poet of an admirable variety: sonnets, elegies, odes, comedies, tragedies, it approached all the kinds, it tested all the rates/rhythms; one can reproach his poetry for being too in charge of scholarship, but one must know liking to him to have softened the French worms and to have enhardi the public taste.
It had joined together around him a company of poets whom it called his Pleiad, i.e.
the constellation of which it was the principal star.
Montaigne, born in 1533 in Périgord, died in 1592, was mixed with the political events with its time as mayor with Bordeaux, then like deputy with the states of Blois: human and tolerant, it never engaged à fond in the fray, and often took refuge in the study.
Its single work, entitled the Tests, is a succession of thoughts without order, but always deep or clever, written in a vigorous style which engraves them in the memory.
The summary of its book is "Which I know ? "
Andre Vésale, born in Brussels in 1514, is the creator of the modern anatomy: facing the prejudices, it studied the structure interior of the human body, and the dissection made make with the medicine of immense progress.
The castle of Blois.
In addition to the Louvre, which is one of the wonders of architecture, France still has a great number of castles of the Rebirth: the castle of Blois, with its large rooms, where the States General were held, its apartments, its prisons, which point out so many historical memories; - the castle of Chambord, with its up to date staircase, its beautiful towers, its pinnacles and its thousand sculptures; - the castle of Chenonceaux, elegantly located on Expensive; etc.
The castle of Fontainebleau is "an appointment of palate" whose main thing is that of the sixteenth century.
Finally one of the most beautiful castles of the Rebirth was the castle of Gaillon than the cardinal of Amboise had been made build not far from Rouen: it us remains about it only charming it gantry which decorates the schoolyard with the Art schools, in Paris.
Benvenuto Cellini In Fontainebleau.
Benvenuto Cellini, having finished its large Jupiter statue, made it carry to the castle of Fontainebleau, and requested François 1st to come to see it.
The enemies of Benvenuto, with the head of which were the duchess of Stamps and Primatice, another Italian artist, ingénièrent themselves to retain the king until fallen the night, so that work appeared less beautiful.
But it arrived from there differently: Benvenuto lit its statue by in top, by means of a skilfully dissimulated torch, so that Jupiter, which held its high hand above its head, seemed to launch the lightning, and still made more effect than in full day.
The king exclaimed with admiration: "Here the most beautiful thing which one ever saw, and if one wanted to throw discredit on this man, one rendered services to him announced" There was the duchess of Stamps, king de Navarre, the dolphin, the dauphine one, Marguerite de France, girl of François 1st, and a crowd of lords.
The two greater facts of the sixteenth century are the Rebirth and the Reform.
The Rebirth is the restoration of arts, the letters and sciences: supported by great inventions, mainly by the printing works, which multiplies the books, it occurs as of the fifteenth century in Italy, especially in Florence, thanks to the protection of Médicis.
In France it starts under Louis XII, reaches his apogee under François 1st, is prolonged under Henri II, then declines.
In arts France does not have as great painters as the Italians Raphaël, Michel-Angel and Léonard de Vinci, but it has the incomparable faience manufacturer Bernard Palissy, two large sculptors, Jean Goujon and German Rammer, of large architects, such as Pierre Lescot, who begins the Louvre, and Philibert Delorme which builds the first castle of Tileries.
In the letters the principal writers are Rabelais, Amyot, Calvin and Montaigne; the principal poets Marot, Ronsard and later Régnier and Malherbe.
Sciences make also great progress, the study of the right with Cujas, the surgery with Ambroise Paré.
The foundation of the College of France by François 1st contributes to the progress of the scientific spirit.
Benvenuto Cellini In Fontainebleau.