ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Marie Stuart, widow.
Marie Stuart remained famous because of her beauty, her spirit and of her misfortunes.
Girl of king d' Écosse Jacques V and Marie of Lorraine, it married in 1558 the Francois, dolphin to which it brought the title of king d' Écosse, and went up on the throne with him the following year; widow at seventeen years and persecuted by Catherine de Médicis, it turned over to Scotland, where it was made like, then to hate her subjects, and after a series of catastrophes it fell to the capacity from the sound enemy, Élisabeth Queen of England, which made it decapitate (1587).
With the death of Henri II, one had needed for France a saver, able to defend it against anarchy and to keep its row in Europe to him: it had as a king François II, child a fifteen year old, weak of body and spirit, undecided character, which was entirely let control by his wife Marie Stuart and the Own ways.
The policy of François 1st, the true policy of France, was abandoned, and during one half-century all the energy of our country was lost in the deads agitations of the civil war.
Jeanne d' Albret.
Girl of king de Navarre Henri d' Albret, and mother of Henri IV; Jeanne d' Albret supported Protestantism.
The admiral Coligny.
Coligny had fought bravely in the wars against Charles-Quint and Philippe II.
After the death of Henri II, it was made calvinist, taken share with the wars of religion and became the chief of the party protesting with died of Cop in 1569.
The chief of the conspiracy of Amboise was an adventurer named Renaudie.
It got along with the prince of Condé, brings together in Nantes, in the greatest secrecy, the delegates of the Protestant cities, and was advisable with them to remove the king with the castle of Blois, then to stop the Own ways, to have the government.
But François de Guise, informed plot by spies and two treacherous Protestants with their party, took along the king to the castle of Amboise, easier to defend, made come from the troops to small noise and was held on his guards without appearing anything to know.
Entreated were taken as with the trap: detachments of cavalry embusqués in wood seized them before they had been able to be assembled and led them to the castle of Amboise, where the majority were decapitated, hung or drowned.
Renaudie, surprised in the wood of Castle-Renaud, was killed out of a blow of arquebus, after having sold its life dearly, and its body was attached to an bracket on the bridge of the Loire (March 1560).
The prince of Condé, who had awaited the events before taking the weapons, declared impudently that it was not plot, and as there was no against him unquestionable proof, François de Guise was constrained to let it leave.
Antoine of Bourbon.
King de Navarre by his marriage with Jeanne d' Albret; protesting like it was done, then turned over to Catholicism.
Michel of the Hospital.
The Brantôme chronicler traces a portrait of the Hospital: "With its large white beard, its pale face, its serious way, it was the true portrait of Jerome saint; all feared it as the schoolboys fear the main thing of their college "
François II, son elder of Henri II and Catherine de Médicis, goes up on the throne at the fifteen years age (1559), and remains foreign with the businesses.
Its reign, which does not last a year and half, is marked by the Conspiracy of Amboise: the protesting party, pressed on the Bourbons, i.e.
on the king de Navarre, Antoine, and on his brother Louis de Condé, tries to seize the capacity by surprise, but the plot fails, and the Own ways, i.e.
François de Guise and his brother the cardinal of Lorraine, are the Masters of the capacity as chiefs of the catholic party.
The Michel chancellor of the Hospital wisely advises the tolerance with the two parties: "Otons, says it, these diabolic words of Huguenots and Papists, let us not change the beautiful name of Christians"; but its voice is not listened.