The French calvinists formed a State in the State, and were combined abroad.
Richelieu makes them an all-out war, besieges the Small rock, their capital, beats the English, who come to their help, and reduces the city after a memorable seat (1628).
The treaty of Alais (1629) leaves to the Protestants the freedom of conscience, but removes their political existence to them.
The unit of France is not threatened any more.
the activity of Richelieu is not very whole employee with the lowering of large, the Protestants and the aristocracy.
It brings back the economy in finances, second the development of the trade and of the public richness, starts to organize a navy of war, finally supports sciences by the creation of the Botanical garden (1626), and the letters by the foundation of the French Academy (1635).