ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
The Royal family taken along to Paris.
The constituent Assembly, after having abolished the privileges, had, in the declaration of the rights of man, proclaimed the principles of personal freedom and national sovereignty, but the king refused to sanction such radical reforms; the people of Paris, fearing new attempts at coup d'etat went in mass to Versailles, invade the palate, massacred some bodyguards, and took along of force the royal family to Tileries, to hold it at his disposal (October 5, and 6 1789).
Dances on the site of the Bastille.
The Bastille, where the absolute royalty had locked up its enemies a long time, rebellious, Protestant, writers critical, were for the people of Paris most odious of the prisons of State and like the symbol of Ancien Régime; the storming of the Bastille was celebrated like a great victory: its destruction seemed to inaugurate one era of democracy and freedom; one made some disappear to the least vestiges, and the evening of July 14, 1790 the people expressed his joy while dancing on the site of the Bastille.
The birthday of the storming of the Bastille was celebrated by a great festival: 100 000 delegated of the nation, delegated departments, national guard, army and navy, met out of weapons with the Field of Mars, to affirm there in front of the Parisian multitude their will to link itself, or as one said then, to federate, to defend the Revolution.
The king, surrounded of his family, the deputies of Constituent, and the diplomatic corps, chaired the immense assembly: when there had solemnly sworn to remain faithful to the constitution, and that the queen presented at the people the young dolphin, enthusiasm was with its roof and crowd shouted "Lives the King" with transport (July 14, 1790).
This enthusiasm was to fall soon; resistances of the king and the requirements of the people were going to divide the nation into irreconcilable parties.
Return of Varennes.
Louis XVI, despairing to stop the Revolution, took the party to emigrate in his turn with his family, but it was stopped in Varennes (Meuse), and the national guard, run de.toutes.parts, prevented the marquis de Bouillé from delivering it with its cavalry.
Two police chiefs of the French National Assembly took seat in the car, Barnave between the king and the queen, Pétion between Mrs Élisabeth and Mrs Royale; the young dolphin, six years old, sat down on the knees of one or others.
It was only at the end of four days that the procession entered to Paris.
The people, which had lined up in mass on the course, accomodated the king by greatest silence and the hat on the head; the instruction was posted everywhere: "That which will applaud the king will be beaten; that which will insult the king will be hung "(June 1791).
WORK OF THE CONSTITUENT ONE
It is the Constituent one which established the equality in front of the law, i.e.
which declared all the French citizens, free, equal in rights, accessible to all public dignities, places and employment.
It is it which released the ground by delivering it of the feudal constraints; it is it which replaced the old taxes by the direct taxation, which weigh on each one because of its fortune, and by the indirect taxation, proportional to the consumption of each one; it is it which established the Supreme court of appeal, the Jury, the Justice of the Peace; it is it which abolished torture.
In a word, it is the Constituent one which abolished Ancien Régime.
It preserved the hereditary royalty, but the king controlled with the assistance of an elected assembly.
The people of Paris, turned sour by misery, rise again in the days of the 5 and October 6, 1789, and take along of force the king to Paris.
The Parliament, overflowed by the parties violent one, abolishes the nobility and the clergy.
Mirabeau, the largest speaker of the Revolution, prevents some time the Parliament to go further, and the king to retrogress, but to his death (April 1791), the king corresponds with the emigrants and tries to flee abroad (June 1791); he is stopped on the way and brought back to Paris; the people ask for the Republic, and the Parliament, which is satisfied to restrict the royal capacity, loses any popularity.