ORIGINS (of 58 front. J.-C. with 887)
FEUDALITY (from 887 to 1483)
Any power of Feudality
Decline of Feudality
One Hundred Years old war
MONARCHY (of 1483 to 1789)
Wars of Italy
Wars against the house of Austria
Wars of religion
Apogee of monarchical France
Decline of monarchy
Ruin Ancien Régime
Day of June 20.
The people of Paris had been assembled in great number on June 20, birthday day of the oath of the Play of Palm, to protest against the reference of the ministers of Gironde.
Led by the Santerre brewer, the mob invades the room of the assembly, then located in the garden of Tileries, then went in the place of the Carrousel, forced the door of the palate, and penetrated while vociferating in the royal apartments.
The king, overpowered insults and threats, was constrained of drinking wine glass to the health of the people, and putting on on his head a red bonnet.
The queen, more insulted even than the king, had the life only with the energy of some national guards.
Crowd did not put less than five hours to weary itself of this wretched play.
The army of line, disorganized by the revolution, weakened by the departure of 2 000 officers and by the desertion from 30 000 soldiers, could not be enough to support the shock of united: the assembly proclaimed the fatherland in danger and called upon the national guards to form battalions of volunteers: estrades were drawn up in full wind to receive the enrôlements with the noise of the music and exclamations of the people; the drums beat with the fields, buckled crepes, and the gun thundered by intervals.
The volunteers, initially without experiment and discipline, became excellent soldiers as soon as they were amalgamated with the troops of line, i.e.
framed among them and submitted to the same officers.
Roland is one of the most famous women of the Revolution.
When her husband was a minister in 1792, it made of its living room the center of the party of Gironde.
Condemned to died into 93, she died with courage, while saying: "O freedom, that crimes have makes on your behalf! "
Fayette had been made popular during the war of America: it was proclaimed ordering national guard; but, tiny room to be used the force against the multitude, it lost any popularity and was constrained to flee.
Day of August 10.
The Prussians, while entering to shift, threatened Paris of a complete destruction, if the person of the king were not respected.
The people took up at once the challenge and rua on Tileries; the fight was wild: the defenders of the palate, with the number from approximately fifteen hundreds, pushed back initially the multitude, but attacked de.toutes.parts, they succumbed under the number; seven hundreds of them were cut the throat of; the others fled by the garden; the royal family, which had taken refuge at the assembly, was locked up with the prison of the Temple.
Battle of Valmy.
The Prussians, who had just entered to Longwy and Verdun, believed themselves in the day before to take Paris; old soldiers broken with all the operations, they had only contempt for the French volunteers, but the young soldiers of Dumouriez, after having endured without breaking a terrible fire, sprang the bayonet ahead, with the cry of "Sharp the nation", and pushed back the astonished enemy (September 20, 1792).
Danton took share at the days of June 20 and of August 10, was accessory to the massacres of September, and contributed of all its forces to the judgment of Louis XVI and the Of Gironde ones, which did not prevent it from being carried out in its turn during Terror like culprit of moderation.
Dumouriez, general of the center, gained the two victories of Valmy and Jemmapes, and conquered Belgium.
In 93 it tried to go against Convention, but it was not followed of its soldiers and passed abroad.
October 1, 1791 in Louis XVI, June 1792, become constitutional king, seems to be resigned to the lowering of the royalty; it takes for Ministers for of Gironde, republicans moderated, such as Roland, and declares the war in Austria, according to the wishes of the nation (April 1792).
But it refuses to follow the assembly further, returns her ministers of Gironde and appears to get along with the foreigner.
The people of exasperated Paris invade the assembly and Tileries (on June 10, 1792), then, in a second access of anger, seize Tileries (on August 10, 1792), and imprison the king.
The assembly is overflowed, and the capacity passes to the commune, made up of the leaders of the people; one of them, Danton, is a Minister for unchained justice, and the rabble massacre of the thousands of royalists at the days of September.
At the same time France is seriously threatened by Prussia, Austria and Piedmont: the duke of Brunswick takes Verdun and crosses Argonne, but Dumouriez, after having disciplined the volunteers of its army, pushes back the Prussians with Valmy (September 92).