Russia, which does not await anything any more alliance of Napoleon, ceases observing the continental blockade; the diplomatic fight is turned sour and the war bursts (1812).
Sweden joint with the coalition.
France for combined Italy, Germany, Denmark, and even Austria and Prussia, allied ambiguities.
Napoleon, who brought together 450 000 men, including 200 000 foreigners, invades Russia with half as of the his forces, opens by victories the road of Vilna, Vitebsk, Smolensk, gains a great victory in Moskova and enters to Moscow, but it has nothing any more with him but 100 000 men.
The fire lit by the Russians forces Napoleon to leave Moscow, and the premature cold kills the men and the horses; the army misses food; 60 000 men perish of Moscow with Smolensk.
The Russians drive back the French Army in Bérésina and destroy its rear-guard; the redoubling of the cold completes the ruin of the army.
Of 450 000 men, there remain approximately only 150 000 about it, dispersed in the fortified towns of Germany.